Hilde Nybom, et al., DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future, Investigative Genetics 5:1, 2014
In the 1980s, the REFP methodology was also first applied to the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) molecule.
Since the cp DNA molecule is highly conserved, there is very little intra-specific variation, and cpDNA-based RELP studies have therefore mostly been conducted on an inter-specific level.
While the plant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence is usually highly conserved, the size and structure of mtDNA molecules may vary widely even within individual plants. Moreover, recent studies indicated that substitution rates of mtDNA genes can vary enormously even among closely related plant species.
A special situation is encountered when products from protected trees are involved since woody tissues usually yields heavily degraded DNA. Nevertheless, a set of SNP markers derived from cpDNA intergenic spacers have proven useful for identification of tropical tree species using wood-derived DNA samples.
Sarah Handler, Ming Furniture in the Light of Chinese Architecture, Ten Speed Press, 2005
Most large beds have a canopy, which approximates the walls and roof of a house. Thus, a house within a house. The difference between them is not only size, but also function. The actual house has a floor to stand on. The house within the house was for sitting, sleeping, or making love and conceiving sons. Chinese beds are used for seating during the day and for sleeping at night.
Rory Johnson, et al., Evolution of the Vertebrate Gene Regulatory Network Controlled by the Transcriptional Repressor REST, Mol Biol Evol (2009) 26 (7): 1491-1507
We show that one-third of human RE1s are unique to primates: These sites recruit REST in vivo, target neural genes, and are under purifying evolutionary selection We observe a consistent and significant trend for more ancient RE1s to have higher affinity for REST than lineage-specific sites and to be more proximal to garget genes. Our results lead us to propose a model where new transcription factor binding sites are constantly generated throughout the genome; thereafter refinement of their sequence and location consolidates this remodeling of networks governing neural gene regulation.
George Nakashima, The Soul of a Tree: A Woodworker’s Reflections, Kodansha USA, 2011
There is a story in Japan of a young man from the country who went to the city and apprenticed himself to a woodworker. He was convinced that this was to be his life’s work, and his parents agreed. A simple fellow, he had great determination and capacity in his craft. Back in his village his parents awaited word of his progress. First a year, then another and finally a third passed, but still no word. The city was not so far, they thought. Why can’t he at least visit us? Then, after five years, an envelope arrived. Hastily opening it, they found no letter; all it contained was a long wood shaving, then feet long, neatly folded and perfect in every way, not a skip anywhere. The simplest of statements, it told all, like broad simple ink strokes in fine calligraphy. The father, immediately understanding, exclaimed: “Ah, my son has make it.” There was great joy in the household that evening.
Basically the woodworker is not driven by commerce, but by a need to create the best object he is capable of creating. Even if the object were to be destroyed when finished, the craftsman would still give the task his all.
학교 교과서로 지정된 책은 아니지만, 공부하다 보면 옆에 두고 항상 들여다보는 책이 있어 소개한다.
취미로 가구를 만들 때 모양이나 결구법에는 많은 시간을 들이지만 마감은 보통 크게 신경쓰지 않는다. 마감은 많은 비용을 필요로 하는 장비와 설치 공간의 제약 및 다루기 위험한 재료 등의 이유로 아마추어들은 접근하기 어렵지만, 전문 목수 일을 하기 위해 알아야 할 내용들을 잘 담고 있다. 마감은 용어의 혼란이 극심한 분야이기도 한데, 이 책은 상점에서 파는 마감재료가 실제로 무엇인지 잘 정리해준다.
이 책은 1900년대 초에 저자가 미국에서 자생하는 나무 250종의 특징과 표본을 담은 책을 사진으로 찍어 다시 발간한 것이다. 원본은 나무별로 face, edge, end grain 방향으로 자른 실제 나무 표본을 담고 있어 전 14권으로 발행되었다. 흔히 사용하는 나무가 아닌 경우 그 나무의 결과 색이 어떤지 찾아볼 수 있다.
캐나다와 미국에서 자생하는 나무 300종의 생김새와 특징을 담고 있다. 나무를 잘라서 항상 뭔가를 만들지만 이 나무들이 살아 있을 때는 어떤 모양인지 궁금할 때 참고하는 책이다. 나뭇잎의 모양과 발달 형태를 이용해서 쉽게 구분할 수 있는 방법을 제공한다.